Are sunbeds safe?
Sunbeds give out ultraviolet (UV) rays that increase your risk of developing skin cancer (both malignant melanoma and non-melanoma). Many sunbeds give out greater doses of UV rays than the midday tropical sun.
The risks are greater for young people. Evidence shows that:
- people who are frequently exposed to UV rays before 25 years of age are at greater risk of developing skin cancer later in life
- sunburn in childhood can greatly increase the risk of developing skin cancer later in life
It’s illegal for people who are under 18 years of age to use sunbeds. The Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010 makes it an offence for someone operating a sunbed business to permit those under 18 from:
- using a sunbed at the business premises, including beauty salons, leisure centres, gyms and hotels
- being offered the use of a sunbed at the business premises
- being allowed in an area that's reserved for sunbed users (unless they're working as an employee of the business)
The GOV.UK website has further details about the Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010.
UV rays from sunbeds
Sunbeds, sunlamps and tanning booths give out the same type of harmful radiation as sunlight. UVA rays make up about 95% of sunlight. They can cause your skin to age prematurely, making it look coarse, leathery and wrinkled. UVB rays make up about 5% and cause your skin to burn.
A tan is your body's attempt to protect itself from the damaging effect of UV rays. Using a sunbed to get a tan isn't safer than tanning in the sun. It may even be more harmful, depending on factors such as:
- the strength of UV rays from the sunbed
- how often you use a sunbed
- the length of your sunbed sessions
- your skin type for example, whether you have fair or dark skin
- your age
In 2006, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products concluded that the maximum ultra violet radiation (UVR) from sunbeds should not exceed 0.3W/m2, or 11 standard erythema doses (erythema means reddening of the skin due to sunburn) per hour. These 11 standard doses are the same as exposure to the tropical sun, which the World Health Organization (WHO) describes as extreme.
Damage from UV rays
Prolonged exposure to UV rays increases your risk of developing malignant melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer.
You can't always see the damage that UV rays cause. The symptoms of skin damage can take up to 20 years to appear.
Advice about using sunbeds
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has issued advice on the health risks associated with UV tanning equipment, such as sunbeds, sunlamps and tanning booths. They recommend that you should not use UV tanning equipment if you:
- have fair, sensitive skin that burns easily or tans slowly or poorly
- have a history of sunburn, particularly in childhood
- have lots of freckles and/or red hair
- have lots of moles
- are taking medicines or using creams that make your skin sensitive to sunlight
- have a medical condition that’s made worse by sunlight, such as vitiligo (a long-term skin condition caused by a lack of a chemical in the skin called melanin)
- have had skin cancer or someone in your family has had it
- already have badly sun-damaged skin
The HSE advice also includes important points to consider before deciding to use a sunbed. For example, if you decide to use a sunbed, the operator should advise you about your skin type and how long you should limit your session to.
Read more about the HSE’s guidance on the use of UV tanning equipment (PDF, 102kb).
- Are sunbeds safe to use during pregnancy?
- Skin cancer (malignant melanoma)
- Skin cancer (non-melanoma)
- Protect your skin and eyes in the sun
- News: sunbeds 'as bad as midday sun'
- Mole self-assessment
- British Association of Dermatologists: sunbeds
Page last reviewed: 13/06/2013
Next review due: 12/06/2015